Process and impact of implementing a smoke-free policy in prisons in Scotland: TIPs mixed-methods studyby WEPHREN
This publication provides an overview of current knowledge and the latest developments in the field of drug use and prison in Europe.
Incidence and predictors of non-fatal drug overdose after release from prison among people who inject drugs in Queensland, Australiaby WEPHREN
Non-fatal overdose among adult prisoners with a history of injecting drug use in two Australian states.by WEPHREN
Incidence and risk factors for non-fatal overdose among a cohort of recently incarcerated illicit drug usersby WEPHREN
Incidence and risk factors for mortality after release from prison in Australia: a prospective cohort studyby WEPHREN
Effectiveness of treatment for opioid use disorder: A national, five-year, prospective, observational study in Englandby WEPHREN
Unlocking the potential of mutual aid in prisons A guide to the benefits of mutual aid, and the use of security and vetting procedures to support its delivery in prisonsby WEPHREN
Radio interview with Jesse Young on dual diagnosis of mental illness and substance use disorder and injury in adults recently released from prisonby Jesse Young
Modelling the impact of incarceration and prison‐based hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment on HCV transmission among people who inject drugs in Scotlandby WEPHREN
This publication sheds light on the situation of drug users among criminal justice populations and corresponding health care responses in nine countries in Eastern and South-East Europe and Kosovo.
England has launched a new drug strategy, to reduce illicit drug use and increase the rate of individuals recovering from drug dependence. There is specific mention of health and justice issues which may be of particular interest.
Substance use disorders in prisoners: an updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis in recently incarcerated men and womenby The Editorial Team
Aims The aims were to (1) estimate the prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders in prisoners on reception to prison and (2) estimate and test sources of between study heterogeneity.
The effectiveness and cost effectiveness of diversion and aftercare programmes for offenders using Class A drugs: A Systematic Review and Economic Evaluationby The Editorial Team
Prevalence of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases in Prison Populations Worldwide: A Systematic Reviewby The Editorial Team
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasingly viewed as a global health crisis, demonstrated by an escalating prevalence of diseases such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, and respiratory disease. The four key modifiable risk factors identified for NCDs are smoking, alcohol, inadequate physical activity, and unhealthy diet. In 2008, 36 million of 57 million deaths worldwide were attributable to NCDs. Of these, 14 million were attributable to unhealthy diet, 3 million to insufficient physical activity, and 3 million to obesity
Tobacco-smoking prevalence has been decreasing in many high-income countries, but not in prison. We provide a summary of recent data on smoking in prison (United States, Australia, and Europe), and discuss examples of implemented policies for responding to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), their health, humanitarian, and ethical aspects. We gathered data through a systematic literature review, and added the authors’ ongoing experience in the implementation of smoking policies outside and inside prisons in Australia and Europe. Detainees’ smoking prevalence varies between 64 per cent and 91.8 per cent, and can be more than three times as high as in the general population.
A Literature Review of International Implementation of Opioid Substitution Treatment in Prisons: Equivalence of Care?by The Editorial Team
Heroin dependence is associated with severe negative outcomes such as HIV and hepatitis C transmission, criminal activity, imprisonment and death from opioid overdose. Opioid substitution treatment (OST) is the most effective treatment available for heroin dependence, resulting in reduced heroin use, HIV transmission, criminal activity and mortality. It is cost-effective and has higher retention rates than other forms of treatment for drug dependence. OST is available in at least 66 countries and territories, including low- and middle-income nations such as China, Indonesia and Iran. The World Health Organization, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime have recommended the implementation of OST in prisons as an essential part of HIV prevention programming. It is argued that, as in the community, heroin-using inmates treated with opioid substitution will inject drugs less often, thus reducing the risk of HIV transmission between prisoners sharing needles and syringes. Other grounds for implementing OST in prisons include improvements in inmate manageability and prison safety and reductions in postrelease criminal activity and re-incarceration.
A Randomised Controlled Trial of Methadone Maintenance Treatment Versus Wait List Control in an Australian Prison Systemby The Editorial Team
Objectives: The aim was to determine whether methadone maintenance treatment reduced heroin use, syringe sharing and HIV or hepatitis C incidence among prisoners. Methods: All eligible prisoners seeking drug treatment were randomised to methadone or a waitlist control group from 1997 to 1998 and followed up after 4 months. Heroin use was measured by hair analysis and self report; drugs used and injected and syringe sharing were measured by self report. Hepatitis C and HIV incidence was measured by serology. Results: Of 593 eligible prisoners, 382 (64%) were randomised to MMT (n=191) or control (n=191). 129 treated and 124 control subjects were followed up at 5 months. Heroin use was significantly lower among treated than control subjects at follow up. Treated subjects reported lower levels of drug injection and syringe sharing at follow up. There was no difference in HIV or hepatitis C incidence. Conclusions: Consideration should be given to the introduction of prison methadone programs particular where community based programs exist.