“Women in prison: mental health and well-being - a guide for prison staff - Penal Reform Internationalby WEPHREN
Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer in imprisoned women worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysisby Emma Plugge
The Importance of Strengthening Prisoners' Family Ties to Prevent Reoffending and Reduce Intergenerational Crime: the Farmer Review 2017by WEPHREN
The effect of multiple adverse childhood experiences on health: a systematic review and meta-analysisby WEPHREN
Short but not sweet: A study on the impact of short custodial sentences on mothers and their childrenby Lucy Baldwin and Rhona Epstein
This research report bears powerful witness to the harsh impact on women and their children of the short custodial sentences too often meted out in the name of justice. It draws attention to the ripple effects of imprisoning mothers, and the turbulence it causes in the lives of their families.
This paper considers how maternal emotions and the maternal role are assembled and challenged through carceral space, and more specifically, how mothers themselves assimilate this experience whilst navigating motherhood post incarceration.
Perinatal Health Care Services for Imprisoned Pregnant Women and Associated Outcomes: A Systematic Reviewby The Editorial Team
Women are a small but increasing minority of the 10 · 2 million people imprisoned worldwide. There are around 100 000 women in prison in Europe on any 1 day, representing 5 % of the total prison population. In the United States (US) there are nearly 215 000 women in prisons and jails, representing 9 % of the incarcerated population and an absolute increase of 30 % since 2000. Despite growing numbers, women’s minority status means that their specific health care needs and those of their children may be overlooked or remain unmet. A review from the United States found that 38 states had inadequate or no prenatal care in their prisons, and a 2008 report from US Department of Justice notes that 46 % of pregnant imprisoned women reported they received no pregnancy care. The World Health Organisation’s (WHO) 2003 Moscow declaration recognises prison health as an important public health issue, and a 2009 WHO declaration acknowledges that current arrangements for dealing with women
Mental Disorders among Adolescents in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities: A Systematic Review and Metaregression Analysis of 25 Surveysby The Editorial Team
Adolescents younger than 19 years constitute 5% of all those detained in custody in Western countries, including about 100,000 individuals in the United States. They are usually detained in separate closed facilities or prisons. High prevalence of both undiagnosed and untreated physical and mental health problems have been reported, with current mental disorders estimated to affect 40% to 70% of the adolescents who come into contact with the justice system. Deliberate self-harm and repeat offending are common,and some of these disorders, such as substance misuse and conduct disorder, are risk factors for criminal recidivism. In the United States and the United Kingdom, it has been argued that there is insufficient screening for mental disorders, that sentencing does not account for mental health issues, and that custodial and secure facilities lack qualified staff and appropriate treatment.
Although women make up only a small proportion of the 9 million people imprisoned worldwide, their numbers are increasing rapidly and consistently across a number of countries. For example, the number of women imprisoned in England and Wales has risen almost threefold over the past decade. Most of these women will be of childbearing age and an estimated 6% of imprisoned women are pregnant. This implies that in England and Wales alone there are about 240 pregnant women in prison at any one time, and in the United States of America over 6,000.